Picanol air jet loom

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A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.

The word "loom" is derived from the Old English "geloma" formed from ge-(perfective prefix) and " loma ", a root of unknown origin; this meant utensil or tool or machine of any kind. In 1404 it was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into cloth. [1] By 1838 it had gained the meaning of a machine for interlacing thread.

Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp , i.e. "that which is thrown across", [2] with the transverse threads, the weft , i.e. "that which is woven".

The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave , satin weave , or twill . Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple pattern), or can be woven in decorative or artistic design.

In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft (older woof ) that crosses it. One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick . The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms. [3]

The warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines (most often adjacent threads belonging to the opposite group) that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. Then, the upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, and the lower group is raised (shedding), allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction, also in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large.

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