# Momentum equation air jet

Specific impulse includes the contribution to impulse provided by external air that has been used for combustion and is exhausted with the spent propellant. Jet engines use outside air, and therefore have a much higher specific impulse than rocket engines. The specific impulse in terms of propellant mass spent has units of distance per time, which is an artificial velocity called the "effective exhaust velocity". This is higher than the * actual* exhaust velocity because the mass of the combustion air is not being accounted for. Actual and effective exhaust velocity are the same in rocket engines not utilizing air.

Specific impulse is inversely proportional to specific fuel consumption (SFC) by the relationship * I* sp = 1/(* g o * ·SFC) for SFC in kg/(N·s) and * I* sp = 3600/SFC for SFC in lb/(lbf·hr).

The amount of propellant is normally measured either in units of mass or weight. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to have units of speed, and so specific impulses are often measured in meters per second and are often termed effective exhaust velocity . However, if propellant weight is used, an impulse divided by a force (weight) turns out to be a unit of time, and so specific impulses are measured in seconds. These two formulations are both widely used and differ from each other by a factor of * g 0 * , the dimensioned constant of gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.

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where * q* is the rate of the ejected mass flow, * P a * the pressure of the ambient atmosphere, * P e * the pressure of the exhaust gases and * V e * their ejection speed. Thrust is specified either at sea level or in a vacuum.
Conservation of Momentum

The * linear momentum* (* p* ), or simply * momentum* , of a particle is the product of its mass and its velocity. That is,

Newton expressed his second law of motion in terms of momentum, which can be stated as "the resultant of the forces acting on a particle is equal to the rate of change of the linear momentum of the particle". In symbolic form this becomes

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